Republic of Zimbabwe
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Covering an area of nearly 391,000 sq km (almost 151,000 sq miles) Zimbabwe is a landlocked country in the south east of the African continent, surrounded by Zambia to the north, Mozambique to the east, South Africa on the south and Botswana to the west. In the Shona language Zimbabwe means “house of the big chief” which refers to what are known as the Great Ruins, located in Zimbabwe’s south and built by the Bantu people in the ninth century. Present day tribes are the minority Ndebele (sometimes known as Matabele) and the majority Shona. These two tribes arrived in the area in the early nineteenth century as fugitives from the warlike expansion of the Zulus under King Shaka. The present population numbers just over 11 million people. The indigenous people represent 98% of the population while only one percent is European. British settlement in the area began in the 1890s, among them was Cecil John Rhodes, and by 1895 the country came to be known as Rhodesia (after Rhodes) and was governed by a white legislature. Eventually the Europeans forbade blacks from owning the prime farmland and from engaging in skilled professions reducing the native population to poverty and intense resentment. Revolts and raids against the whites became common and tensions between the two increased. In 1953 New Zealander R.S. Garfield Todd became Prime Minister of the self-governing British colony but was ousted in 1958 due in large degree to his pro-African policies. By 1965 there were about 300,000 whites in the country when the white minority leader Ian Smith declared independence from the UK. Guerilla action led to the overthrow of Smith and black majority rule by 1980. At that time Robert Mugabe, a Shona, became the Socialist leader of Zimbabwe. He renounced Marxism-Leninism in the early 1990s and some attempts have been made in market reforms but the country has edged closer to being a de facto one-party state. The government is a Republic with a single legislative body known as the Parliament.
Economically Zimbabwe is nearly self-sufficient in the production of food as a result of the economic isolation imposed by the Smith government. This forced both agricultural and manufacturing diversity. African farms are still largely small-scale subsistence farms growing maize, cassava and wheat while large-scale white owned enterprises produce much of the cash crops such as tobacco, cotton and sugar cane. These cash crops account for much of agriculture’s 35% share of the national export revenue. In 2000 President Mugabe began a process of land redistribution that has led to an exodus of the white farmers, crippled the economy and ushered in widespread shortages of basic commodities. Mineral resources in Zimbabwe include coal, copper, iron, tin, asbestos, gold and other precious metals; mining employs about five percent of Zimbabweans and contributes 40% of the nation’s exports. The Zambezi River on the northern border plunges over Victoria Falls. Down river is Lake Kariba with its large dam facility shared with Zambia. Almost 40% of the country’s electricity needs are met by the hydroelectric power provided by the dam. The Zambezi, Kariba Lake, the Great Ruins and several national parks are among the nation’s tourist attractions.
The faith communities in Zimbabwe include large indigenous and Christian communities, each representing about a quarter of the population. A synthesis of traditional religious beliefs and Christian faith makes up the remaining 50% of the population’s religious practices.
The story of the Stone-Campbell Movement in Zimbabwe begins with John Sherriff, the son of an English stonemason, born in Christchurch, New Zealand in 1864. Young John followed in his father’s profession of stonemasonry, an occupation that opened the doors for him to travel and work in New Zealand, Australia and South Africa. In South Africa John arrived at Cape Town in February of 1896 went briefly to Johannesburg, and later settled for a time in Pretoria employing his skills in the building of the law Court’s and Kruger’s Church. While he fell in love with Pretoria he came to feel that this was still not the place for his life’s work and made plans to move further north into Rhodesia, beyond the Limpopo, to Bulawayo, a town just being opened up for early settlement. Sherriff and his traveling companions arrived in Bulawayo in the last hours of 1897. On the second of January 1898 John Sherriff gathered together a few Europeans friends and spread before them the Lord’s Supper. Thus was the beginning of Stone-Campbell Movement in Rhodesia.
John Sherriff began working as a stonemason during the day and at night soon found the opportunity to commence a night school for some African boys, meeting twice a week from 7-9 pm in his own small room. English was his subject the Bible was his textbook. It is said that Sherriff wrote enthusiastically to friends in Great Britain, Australia and New Zealand about the missionary prospects in the area and in 1901 made a trip home to the two latter nations; by his first hand account gained additional support. The Foreign Missions Committee of New Zealand gave Sherriff money to erect a small brick building that was used for a church and a school. Though in the initial phase of the work John Sherriff faced several challenges he estimated that by 1904 he had baptized two whites, six African women and 67 African men and youths. Sensing the great possibilities to be found in Rhodesia the New Zealand Committee agreed the following year to take full financial responsibility for the work in the Bulawayo area and sent Mr. And Mrs. Frank Leslie Hadfield to join Sherriff. There were church services for blacks and whites, a Sunday school, a day school and night classes. By 1907 an outstation was begun at Intini, seven kilometers from town with practical training classes for Africans as well as teacher and preacher training. At Forrest Vale, eight kilometers from the town, a 412-acre farm was purchased and an agricultural school was commenced. Shortly thereafter Thomas Anderson emigrated from Scotland to assist in the new work. The next New Zealanders to arrive were Mr. and Mrs. William (Wally) Mansill who came a few years after the Hadfields. By this time the work was ever expanding in Bulawayo and beyond. By 1911 the government approached the Bulawayo Church of Christ leaders about opening a new outstation 200 kilometers to the east in the Belingwe area (now called the Lundi Reserve). With permission and support from the New Zealand churches Frank Hadfield, Wally Mansill and six African helpers set off in 1912 to begin a new station at Ingome. There they began the very first school in Lundi, with twenty young people, in January of 1913. Subsequently, a new school was opened almost every year, including one at Old Dadaya. The progress was not without its costs; in March of 1913 Wally Mansill suffered a fatal sunstroke leaving a wife and unborn child. A severe drought and the commencement of the Great War in 1914 brought additional strains to the Mission, the health of the missionaries was often compromised but still the Lord gave increase to the work.
Near the time of the end of the War plans began to be made to move the head station from Bulawayo to Dadaya. The church at Bulawayo and surrounding outstations were now sufficiently strong to be entrusted to native leadership with Mr. Hadfield in an honorary supervisory position. Mr. Frederick John Phillips arrived from the Nelson (New Zealand) Church of Christ for a one-year term. Tom Anderson died as a result of the 1918 Influenza Epidemic and J.W. Classen came up from the Cape Town churches to assist in the work. Classen soon married Gladys Hadfield and they were scheduled to take over direction of the new head station at Dadaya and the surrounding outstations. However, ill health soon forced Mr. Classen to resign temporarily from this post. For a time it appeared that the whole work, except for that in Bulawayo, might be lost.
Not wanting to see the splendid work for the Lord fall into ruin Fredrick Phillips and his wife Mary Fitzsimmons Phillips and their daughter, Vonna, volunteered to return to Rhodesia for a five-year term, beginning in the summer of 1920.* Arriving at Dadaya Mr. Phillips reorganized the station, erected a new building and soon began to breathe new life into the mission. There were at that time approximately 130 members in the local church with 73 others awaiting baptism. Vonna Phillips soon married Douglas Hadfield, elder son of the first missionaries. The number of outstations was increased and locals trained to preach and teach were given oversight of these areas. Cattle were soon introduced into the Reserve providing a supply of meat for missionaries and students in the school. Mr. Phillips was also called upon to provide medical attention for the natives; in 1923 he treated five hundred cases in addition to his other responsibilities. The spiritual side of the mission prospered, as well. By now total church membership had grown to about 400 and nearly 600 scholars were attending classes throughout the Reserve. Before they were replaced by Mr. and Mrs. C.A. Bowen of Onehunga, New Zealand in 1925 the Phillips had seen substantial buildings erected at Dadaya, nearly 1000 people added to the Church, many young people educated and solid foundations laid upon which the future missionaries could build.
Meanwhile, John Sherriff continued to work at Forrest Vale on the outskirts of Bulawayo, making this his permanent home. In later years he was instrumental in establishing the work at Livingstone in Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and in Blantyre in Nyasaland (now Malawi). In the 1920s members of the American a cappella Churches of Christ aided his efforts. In the early 1930s he also spent some time in Cape Town for medical reasons and helped establish another church there. In 1935 he died at his home in Forrest Vale. His daughter, Theodora, helped considerably in African mission work in following years.
Mashoko, a new tribal area in the south east corner of Zimbabwe, was opened in 1928. Over 270 km from Dadaya, this was the last native population group yet untouched by missionary influence. The estimated population was about 6300 most of who had never seen a white person. Under the guidance of Alf Bowen nine schools and churches were commenced at Mashoko, which means “The Word(s) or The Message (the Gospel).” As the area and the outstation grew additional schools were added. Dadaya missionaries supervised this distant outpost for nearly three decades until it was transferred to the care of American missionaries of the Christian Churches and Churches of Christ in 1956. More on this transfer later.
The year 1934 saw the arrival of another missionary couple from New Zealand, R.S. Garfield Todd and his wife, Grace Wilson Todd. Garfield was to become the Superintendent of the Mission. It is perhaps safe to say that few other missionary couples had as profound an impact on their adopted country as Garfield and Grace Todd. Grace Todd’s primary role as missionary was education and eventually she worked to shape the educational structure for the entire country. She began with a few trained teachers at Dadaya, established a boarding department, and increased enrollment from 21 to 80 in the first year; growing the number to 222 three years later. Fanning out from Dadaya 23 village schools were opened in the tribal lands. The government of Southern Rhodesia (as Zimbabwe was known at this time) was sympathetic to missionary activities and was prepared to leave the education of Africans in missionary hands. Lesson plans for teachers were in great need and Mrs. Todd met the demand by planning a lesson for every primary school subject for each day of the school year for every class to standard three levels.
In the developing status of the country in the 1940s Garfield Todd saw that he could help advance education by entering into the political arena. In 1946 he won his first election to the Southern Rhodesian Parliament. As a member of Parliament Garfield filled several posts and eventually came to the head of his party. In 1953 he became Prime Minister of the then self-governing British colony. His was the first serious attempt of any Southern Rhodesian administration to improve African education and improve the quality of life for the African majority. His administration was considered far too liberal and he was removed from power in 1958, replaced by Edgar Whitehead. Queen Elizabeth II knighted Garfield in 1989. He was an active supporter of the World Convention, serving as Vice President from 1955-1960 and spoke at several Conventions. Garfield and Grace Todd were active in the affairs of their adopted country until their deaths in 2002 and 2001, respectively. One of the World Convention’s Honorary Citations carry the Todd name out of respect for their work in their adopted homeland.
Garfield and Grace developed a large ranch about 8 km from Old Dadaya and established a home there. In 1949 they gave 650 acres of the ranch to establish a new head station for the Mission thus the Mission was moved with the transfer completed by the end of 1954. With Garfield Todd’s advent into politics and the growth of the Mission additional personnel were needed. The late 1940s and early 1950s saw several missionaries from New Zealand come to Dadaya, including Mr. and Mrs. Peter Nathan, Shirley Beadle, Jean Scott, Joan Kermode, Mr. and Mrs. Paul Sharfe, Mr. and Mrs. Hugh Carden, Bill and Barbara Adcock and others. In 1944 the first African Church leader, Mr. J.N. Hlambelo, was ordained to full-time ministry. The same year the first Dadayan student matriculated and began studies toward a university degree. A Golden Jubilee of the first missionary, Frank Hadfield, to be sent to Rhodesia by the New Zealand Churches of Christ was observed in 1956. Many of the former missionaries still living in Rhodesia were present for the occasion. To commemorate the occasion a church building was planned for the new Dadaya mission. Frank Hadfield, then 82, laid the foundation stone. The building was completed by 1961. Frank Hadfield passed away at the age of 92 having spent six decades in Rhodesia. Archie and Maggie Watters, in their autobiography, Winged Feet, give high accolades to Frank Hadfield and his life’s work on behalf of his adopted country. The Watters’ wrote that they knew of no other mission that had produced a larger church membership on the field than it had at home. Such was the relationship between Rhodesia and New Zealand with much of the credit for that growth resulting from Frank Hadfield’s efforts.
The new school at Dadaya quickly grew with the number of students reaching more than 450. In addition to general education and Bible, athletics became an important aspect of the life of the school. Many of the Dadaya students became teachers and supplied schools farther out in the Reserve and distant villages. The missionaries consistently sought to maintain and improve the standards of these local schools, train and help teachers and provide equipment, supplies, and furniture as funds became available. In the late 1960s the New Zealand missionaries were part of a larger ecumenical effort that led to the establishment of the United College of Education in Bulawayo to provide higher standards of teacher training. The school commenced in 1968 with 400 students! Bill Adcock, one of the New Zealand missionaries, went from Dadaya to join the education faculty of the new school. This also allowed more opportunity for the trained Africans to begin taking over the work at Dadaya, a step towards independence from the missionaries. The female missionaries worked throughout the Reserve, introducing infant health care, teaching balanced diets, nutrition to combat malnutrition, and established Baby Care Centers. Cooking, handicraft and sewing classes were introduced to improve the quality of life. Bible study and prayer were also important teaching aspects in the program of the female missionaries. In addition to the station in Mashoko other preaching points were opened at Gweru, Chidamoyo and countless other points. Wherever a school was opened a church grew or where a congregation was begun a school would begin. Thus the two institutions grew up side by side.
The 1960s saw political turmoil increasing in Rhodesia. Garfield Todd was expelled from leadership in 1958 and in the years to follow was made a political prisoner under house arrest for years at a time. In 1965 the Ian Smith led white minority government issued the Unilateral Declaration on Independence from British control. African guerilla action to overthrow Ian Smith led to black majority rule in 1980, under the leadership of Robert Mugabe. At that time the nation was renamed Zimbabwe. Following independence the New Zealand sponsored elementary schools were all handed over to local authorities with the exception of Dadaya High School.
The foundations laid and work continued throughout the twentieth century by the New Zealand churches is a work still supported into the twenty-first century, now with the additional support of the Australian churches. In 1989 an Australian was appointed chaplain of Dadaya High School, symbolic of the Australian Overseas Mission Board new partnership with the New Zealand Churches of Christ and the Zvishavane Conference Council of the Associated Churches of Christ of Zimbabwe. The support of the foreign missionary in Zimbabwe is not as great as it once was, much of it now having been transferred to African leadership. The mission stations and churches are collectively known as the Associated Churches of Christ. However, the majority of the congregations and not self-sufficient and must still seek financial support. Overseas money will remain a critical factor of the growth of the Zimbabwean churches remembering the two-third world backdrop against which those in Zimbabwe must labor.
A 1997 report sent to the World Convention office by Manikidzo Manford Nyoni, then Secretary of the Associated Churches of Christ, reported that at that time there were 200 congregations in the Association being served by 60 trained ministers in active service with an overall church membership exceeding 20,000. Among the work being carried out by the Associated Churches includes Khayelihle Children’s Village in Bulawayo, ministering to AIDS orphans; an agricultural project at Dadaya aimed at combating national poverty on a local level; Dadaya High School continues to prosper with a thousand students; evangelical crusades in rural areas; and District and Regional Conferences with an Conference complex for meetings, training, worship, etc. in Gweru. Annually, the Associated Churches host a National Conference. In addition, youth conferences and workshops for ministers are held. In more recent years the National Conference has been gaining support and attendance from the missionaries and churches affiliated with the American Christian Churches and Churches of Christ. Of the latter there are about 800 congregations, amking the number of Stone-Campbell movement congregations in excess of 1000 and growing! Bafundi (BJ) Mpofu the current President of the Associated Churches of Christ in Zimbabwe and First Vice President of the World Convention (2004-2008) has made the comment that you can never be far from a “Church of Christ” anywhere in Zimbabwe.
By the mid 1950s it was becoming increasingly difficult for the New Zealand Churches to adequately meet the demands of all the mission stations in Rhodesia. Thus it was decided to invite Americans of the Christian Churches and Churches of Christ to take over the leadership and development of the Mashoko Mission, begun in 1928 by John Hay, 270 km to the southeast from Dadaya. (The decision made by the missionaries was not necessarily a popular decision with the African population.) Max Ward Randall was at that time ministering with the Polo Road Church in Cape Town, South Africa and aided in working out the details of the transfer.
In 1956 John Pemberton came from the United States to take over the work in Mashoko, continuing the work of literacy and evangelism. Two years later Dr. Dennis Pruett joined the Mission and added the dimension of medical evangelism with the early medical care being carried out in makeshift tents. Garfield Todd had met with both men at the 1955 World Convention in Toronto and worked out the details for them to take on the work at Mashoko rather than their intended field in the Zambezi Valley, a location that was to be made un-inviting by the opening of the Kariba dam. In 1961 Mashoko Christian Hospital was dedicated along with a school of nursing to train workers for the care of the patients. A dental unit was added in 1989 and in more recent years AIDS Home Based Care has become an important part of the hospital’s mission. Following the leadership of Dennis Pruett, Dr. David Grubbs became the missionary administrator of the hospital in 1970s and 80s. Dr. Zindoga Bungu, the first Zimbabwean doctor at the hospital, succeeded Dr. Grubbs. Dr. Bungu also supervised another hospital and at least three additional clinics in the Mashoko/Hippo Valley areas. The mission eventually came to be known as the Central African Mission and grew to include stations in Bulawayo, Chidamoyo, Dewure, Fort Victoria, Gwelo, Hippo Valley, Salisbury (Harare), Sinoia, Zambezi and others.
A monthly mission paper, Central Africa Story, was produced for many years to share the story of the incredible work being carried out in Rhodesia/Zimbabwe. Among the dozens of American missionaries from the Christian Churches and Churches of Christ to serve in central Africa have been the Pemberton and Pruett families (multi-generational), Mr. And Mrs. Ziden Nutt, Dr. and Mrs. Kenny Messman, Mr. And Mrs. Owen Dunlap, Dr. Gloria Cobb, Dick and Wilma Smith, Ben and Karen Pennington, Mr. And Mrs. Lester Van Dyke, Mr. and Mrs. Cyril Simkins, Dr. and Mrs. William Nice, Dr. and Mrs. James Frasure, Jack and Peggy Pennington, Marcia Kay Thomson, Dale and Linda Marshall, Bill and Carolyn DeLaughter, Charles and Pat McDaniel, Dr. Jerry Smith and family, Doug and Frances Johnson and many, many others. Among these missionaries quite a few have spent several decades working and ministering in Zimbabwe. In several instances their children and grandchildren continue their work. At the time of this writing there are approximately two-dozen missionary families living and working in Zimbabwe. Christian Church and Churches of Christ mission organizations such as FAME, HASTEN, Peace on Earth Ministries and White Fields Evangelism are active in Zimbabwe. Central Africa Mission is now known as 2nd Mile International and sponsors a variety of ministry outreaches.
Providing educational opportunities for the people of Zimbabwe has been an integral part of the various missions. The earliest efforts at a Bible College are said to have begun with a single student in the year 1958. This school grew and was later relocated to Masvingo and was known as Central Africa Christian College. In 1971 Rhodesia Christian College was begun in Salisbury (now Harare) under the leadership of Dennis and Lucy Pruett and others. Following independence in 1980 the two schools were merged into the Harare campus and is presently known as Zimbabwe Christian College. ZCC serves students from Zimbabwe, Kenya, the Sudan, Malawi, Botswana and South Africa. Supporting the education efforts at both Zimbabwe Christian College and the greater Zimbabwe mission is the Central Africa Mission Evangelistic Literature Service (CAMELS), begun in 1965. With oversight from veteran missionary Marcia Kay Thomson, CAMELS publishes songbooks, lesson materials, tracts, baptismal certificates, and various other printed materials used by Christians throughout southern Africa. In order to be financially viable (and rely less upon mission dollars) CAMELS also does some commercial printing for mission institutions (hospitals and schools) and various church groups.
At present there are estimated six to eight hundred congregations of the Christian Churches and Churches of Christ in Zimbabwe. Cooperation and affiliation with the Associated Churches of Christ in Zimbabwe is presently taking place at a level unknown just a few years ago. Signs of this cooperation and mutual support can be found in the national gatherings and conventions.
In Mac Lynn’s survey of missions in the (a cappella) churches he states that the first folks from the a cappella tradition to go to Zimbabwe from the United States were W.N. Short in 1921 followed by Dow Merritt and a Mr. Garrett, accompanied by his son, Robert. These individuals are said to have gone to assist New Zealander John Sherriff. Later, in 1941, W.L. Brown began a school at Nhowe Mission. In 1958 a preaching school was also organized at the Nhowe Mission to train native preachers. It was later moved to Mutare under the sponsorship of the Hillcrest church of Abilene, Texas and is now the Mutare Bible School. The Nhowe Mission School is located in Macheke; in the late 1990s it reported an enrollment of 1600 students. The Nhowe Mission also has a hospital where the battle against AIDS is constantly fought and includes a farm to produce foodstuffs for the mission. New Horizons Schools is also located in Mutare. Other early workers from the American (a cappella) Churches of Christ included Boyd Reece, Cecil Hook, Marjorie Sewell, Ann Burns, a Mr. Ward, Roy Palmer, Dick Clark, Loy Mitchell, Jesse Brown, Alex Claasen, L.E. Gifford, Rhinard Troup, John Hanson, Mark Legg, Clayton Waller, and Doyle Gilliam.
In the 1950s, Foy Short and Henry Ewing began a work in Zimbabwe among the English-speaking whites. However, at the time that independence was declared many of these fled the country and the buildings of this mission were taken over by Africans. Short had also begun a work in Gweru in the 1950s. He and J.C. Shewmaker later served for several years as elders for the (a cappella) Hillside church in Bulawayo in the 1960s. Additional Americans who have served in Zimbabwe in the latter decades of the twentieth century include: Allen Wade Avery, Jr., Stan Frank, Alan Hadfield, Vernon Lawyer, L.K. Pomeroy, Stan Mitchell, John Reece, Lee Richard, Joseph Lyon, Robert Reese, Bobby Wheat and Errol Williams. Canadian Leonard Bailey also worked in Bulawayo and Scotsman Robert Thomson spent the years of 1975-1993 laboring in Zimbabwe.
Another interesting feature of the (a cappella) Churches of Christ work in Zimbabwe, indeed throughout much of southern Africa, is the “Gospel Chariot.” It is a 56ft 18-wheeler truck that travels through the countries of Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho, and Namibia. The rig is in three parts and contains a kitchen and sleeping quarters for the drivers and a stage that opens out with a complete public address system, a pulpit, a baptistery filled with water, and a 300-seat tent. The Gospel Chariot is a creative and innovative tool used in fulfilling the great commission. For more information on the Gospel Chariot contact the Nhowe Mission or Oakland Church of Christ at the addresses listed below.
Initial involvement of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in Zimbabwe came about in 1972 and has included such activities as finding additional water sources and laying pipes to communities, helping with education by providing scholarships, school supplies and building a library. The Division of Overseas Ministries of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) shares a common witness in Zimbabwe with the Wider Church Ministries of the United Church of Christ. This common witness includes both financial support and in some cases assignment of DOM personnel. In the late 1990s Tod and Ana Gobledale were DOM personnel in Zimbabwe. But like many missionaries serving in country the DOM personnel have been, at times, forced to flee the deteriorating political situation. The Common Global Ministries Board supports Christian Care, the United Church of Christ in Zimbabwe, the Zimbabwe Synod of the United Congregational Church of Southern Africa and the Zimbabwe Council of Churches.
Early in the twentieth century the British Churches of Christ were able to send short-term missionaries to aid the work being carried out in South Africa. In 1908 members of the congregations in Cape Town, South Africa and Bulawayo, Southern Rhodesia made their way to Nyasaland to investigate the prospects of opening a new work there (see Malawi profile). Tom Anderson of the Bulawayo Mission reported home to the British Foreign Missions Committee that the prospects were pleasing thus the FMC authorized the work. Thus Bulawayo helped to serve as the springboard for the British Churches of Christ to launch into Nyasaland.
Years later Archie and Maggie Watters of the British Churches of Christ were sent to Bulawayo, Zimbabwe for a two-year term, beginning in 1957, under the financial support of the American United Christian Missionary Society. After a year furlough at Milligan College, in Tennessee, USA, Archie and Maggie returned to Rhodesia in 1960 for another term, even though they were well past seventy years of age. With the financial assistance of First Christian Church of Johnson City, Tennessee the Watters’ built and personally presented a church building to the African congregation at Luveve. The Watters returned to Scotland in 1967.
Another couple with ties to the British Churches of Christ presently serving in Zimbabwe is Jim and Lise Bacon who work in Gweru feeding AIDS orphans and elderly. They also engage in Christian counseling, teach in a Bible college at Lalapanzi and are involved with English speaking congregations. Jim and Lise have ties to both the British Churches of Christ and the American Christian Churches and Churches of Christ.
Clinton J. Holloway
National Profiles Editor
For further historical reference:
Churches of Christ Around the World, Lynn, Mac, 21st Century Christian Publications, Nashville, TN, 2003.
Disciples of Christ Historical Society, 1101 19th Avenue, South, Nashville, TN 37212-2112 (USA)
Telephone: (615) 327-1444
Website: http://www.discipleshistory.org (provides links to other historical sites and databases).
Online catalog: ALEX
See the Archives of the World Convention for information on the relationshipof Sir Garfield and Lady Grace Todd to the World Convention of Churches of Christ.
Partners One Hundred Years of Mission Overseas by Churches of Christ in Australia 1891-1991, Keith Bowes, Editor, Vital Publications, Australia, 1990.
Achievement 50 Years of Missionary Witness in Southern Rhodesia, Murray J. Savage, printed by Te Rau Press Limited, Gisborne, NZ, 1949. (See bibliography of this book for further resources).
Winged Feet, Archie and Maggie Watters Story of Adventures Following in the Service of the Cross, Margaret Watters, privately published, Scotland, 1981.
From the Beginning to Zimbabwe, Wellesley (Bill) Adcock, Woadco Press, NZ, 1999.
Associated Churches of Christ
Bafundi (BJ) Mpofu, President
For online directories of a cappella Churches of Christ see:
Churches of Christ (a cappella) contacts in Zimbabwe:
Mutare Bible School
P.O.Box 3198 Paulington
New Horizon School
Seventh Avenue Church of Christ
6 Jubilee St.
Nhowe Mission School
The Nhowe Mission receives sponsorship from the Oakland Church of Christ, 22355 W. 11 Mile Road, Southfield, MI 48034-8414
Christian Churches and Churches of Christ contact information in Zimbabwe:
Zimbabwe Christian College
4 Kaye Eddie Drive
Msasa Park, Harare Zimbabwe
Khayelihle Children’s Village
P.O. Box FM549 Famona
Telephone/Fax: 263-9 76144
Gweru Christian Ministries
Jim and Lise Bacon
P.O. Box 6173
Telephone: (054) 23438
For printing and literature information:
Central Africa Mission Evangelistic Literature Service (CAMELS)
Marcia Kay Thomson
P.O. Box 231
Australian Churches of Christ Global Mission Partners
PO Box 341
TORRENSVILLE PLAZA SA 5031
114 Henley Beach Road
TORRENSVILLE SA 5031
Telephone: (+61) 8 8352 3466
Fax: (+61) 8 8234 5373
Web site: http://www.inpartnership.org.au
For a list of many Christian Churches and Churches of Christ (in the United States) missionaries/ministries see:
Mission Services Association
7545 Hodges Ferry Road, Knoxville, TN (USA) 37920
Telephone: 1 (800) 655-8524
Fax: 1 (865) 573-5950
For more information on the National Conference or District/Regional conferences:
the Associated Churches of Christ office in Gweru.
Leadership Training Seminar (Christian Churches and Churches of Christ)
Contact Dale Marshall
Chinhoyi Christian Mission
P.O. Box 671
Meridian, ID 83680